Dental Fluorosis, is an enamel defect caused due to excessive intake of fluoride during the phase of early tooth development, alters the enamel forming cells.
This health condition can affect people of any age group, but is more prevalent among children between the age group of 1-4 years.
In the initial stages, fluorosis appears as white spots. In severe conditions, it causes mottling of enamel, which is severe pitting, cracking of the tooth structure, accompanied with dark brown to black stains.
Severity of dental fluorosis depends upon factors like, amount of fluoride exposure, age of the individual, the host response.
Severe cases of fluorosis can occur if the water is fluoridated much above the recommended level.
Fluorosis is directly related to tooth eruption. More the fluoride intake, more delayed is the tooth eruption, and in turn more severe is the flurosis.
Fluorosis, increases the porosity of the teeth, making them more vulnerable to decay.
Excessive fluoride intake affects the tooth enamel during the developmental stage.
Enamel consists of hydroxyapatite and carbonated hydroxyapatite; in the presence of fluoride, fluorapatite is also generated.
Excessive fluoride forms white spots, and in severe cases, mottling of enamel.
Fluorsis does not affect permanent teeth. The flurapatite formed is beneficial at this stage. It makes the tooth structure resistant to acid dissolution.
Fluoride consumption can exceed the tolerable limit, if the individual consumes excessively fluoridated water along with other fluoridated products, like toothpastes, or excessive fluoride containing foods.
If the water is fluoridated at 1ppm, then the individual must consume, 1 litre of water, so that a daily dose of 1mg of fluoride is attained.
Dental flourosis can be cosmetically treated by the dentist. Initial stages can be solved by Bleaching and Microbrasion. In cases of severe mottling, Restorations or Porcelain Veneers will be ideal.