Dental Fluorosis

Dental Fluorosis, is an enamel defect caused due to excessive intake of fluoride during the phase of early tooth development, alters the enamel forming cells.

This health condition can affect people of any age group, but is more prevalent among children between the age group of 1-4 years.

In the initial stages, fluorosis appears as white spots. In severe conditions, it causes mottling of enamel, which is severe pitting, cracking of the tooth structure, accompanied with dark brown to black stains.

Severity of dental fluorosis depends upon factors like, amount of fluoride exposure, age of the individual, the host response.

Severe cases of fluorosis can occur if the water is fluoridated much above the recommended level.

Fluorosis is directly related to tooth eruption. More the fluoride intake, more delayed is the tooth eruption, and in turn more severe is the flurosis.

Fluorosis, increases the porosity of the teeth, making them more vulnerable to decay.




Excessive fluoride intake affects the tooth enamel during the developmental stage.

Enamel consists of hydroxyapatite and carbonated hydroxyapatite; in the presence of fluoride, fluorapatite is also generated.

Excessive fluoride forms white spots, and in severe cases, mottling of enamel.

Fluorsis does not affect permanent teeth. The flurapatite formed is beneficial at this stage. It makes the tooth structure resistant to acid dissolution.

Fluoride consumption can exceed the tolerable limit, if the individual consumes excessively fluoridated water along with other fluoridated products, like toothpastes, or excessive fluoride containing foods.

If the water is fluoridated at 1ppm, then the individual must consume, 1 litre of water, so that a daily dose of 1mg of fluoride is attained.




Dental flourosis can be cosmetically treated by the dentist. Initial stages can be solved by Bleaching and Microbrasion. In cases of severe mottling, Restorations or Porcelain Veneers will be ideal.



Dry Mouth – Causes and Management

Dry mouth is scientifically called Xerostomia.  It results due to either reduced saliva secretions (hyposalivation), or reduced saliva formation. `

Lack of saliva, can make chewing, talking, difficult. It also increases the probability of tooth decay, because saliva consatntly washes away and neutralizes the acids formed by the action of bacteria on the food remnants. Saliva also helps in remineralizing the lost enamel, hence reversing the decay process.

All tissues and surfaces in the oral cavity, become dry, and the mucosa and the periodontal tissue becomes vulnerable to infection.




Excessive mouth breathing habit.

Nervousness, anxiety.

Underlying disease which affects the saliva secretion by the salivary glands – SJogrens syndrome, Diabetes.

Dehydration caused by excessive loss of fluids.

Chmotherapy, Radiotherapy.

Medications – Antidepressants, Antihistaminics.




First the cause of dry mouth should be identified and treated accordingly to dissolve the problem.

Other symptoms, like restoring the decayed teeth.

Special attention to oral hygiend emeasures.

Preventive measures, like use of sealants, and fluorides to prevent further tooth decay, and can help in restoring the lost tooth structure.

sipping on non carbonated sugarless frequently, inorder to stimulate the saliva secretion from the glands.

Xylitol containing chewing gums can be used.

Pilocrapine can also be prescribed.

Drinking water to relieve the dryness, does not eradicate the problem, unless the cause is dehydration.

Also avoiding intake of tobacco and alcohol.







Tongue Cleaning – The cause of bad breath.

Tongue cleaning is the most neglected aspect of daily oral hygiene regime. Coated tongue is often the cause for bad breath.

The top sueface of the tongue is not a very smooth surface. It has several elevations and depressions, which are very ideal for the accumulation of debris, and bacterial growth. If left unattended, the bacterial colonies grow, along with abiuld up of food debris, causing bad breath,a nd a condition called Coated tongue, or White tongue.

There are devices available to clean the tonuge. These are called  Tongue cleaners, or Tongue scrappers. Even a toothbrush can be used for this purpose. Any instrument with a rigid design and can flush very well with the tongue surface, is good for tongue cleaning.



Tongue cleaning, elimination millions of bacteria, food debris, and dead cells from the surface of the tonuge.

Many scientific studies have proven, that these organisms, when decay the food particles, form malodrous compounds, mainly Volatile Sulphuric Compounds (VSC) which is the main cause for halitosis, or bad breath.

Tongue cleaning if done on a regular basis, can eliminate the accumulation of anaerobic bacteria, which is the main reason for plaque accumulation, all periodontal problems and gum disease, tooth decay.



Its a misconception that its the force that helps in optimum tongue cleaning. The most important points to be kept in  mind while performing tongue cleaning, is the motion, and the instruument that you have chosen.

The motion should start from the base of the tongue, slowly, steadily to forwards towards the tip, and the sides. several sweepping motion will be needed to complete the process.

The instrument used, should flush with the tongue surface, and rigid enough against the spongy muscle to conveniently sweep away the debris.



It has been noted, that in case of excess force, or if  the motion starts much beyond the base of the tonuge, you will experience  a gag reflex. This is a very common phenomenon.

This can be avoided, by relaxing the tongue and the muscles of the throat.

An improper designed tongue scrapper, used aggressively damages the tongue surface especially the taste buds and the papillae present on the dorsum of the tongue. This can be taken care of by learning the right technique to perform the tongue cleaning regime.



Tongue cleaning alone cannot solve the problem of bad breath. It has to be a part of the complete oral hygiene regime that includes, briushing, and flossing.

If performed regularly, you can maintain a healthy, fresh, odor free and pink coloured tongue.




How to do an Exeter Total Hip Replacement Arthroplasty Procedure

This post explains how to do a cemented Exeter Total Hip Replacement Arthroplasty in detail. Rather than re-write the Total Hip Replacement procedure, I have included a PDF version from the manufacturer – this can be read by clicking on the below link.

Exeter Total Hip Replacement

Exeter Total Hip Replacement

Exeter V40 Total Hip Replacement Arthroplasty procedure




1 Easy Secret That Will Guarantee Weight Loss Success

This is a guest post from Johnny Palmer from, if you are interested in writing a guest post, please contact us.

Man Trying to Lose Weight

Man Trying to Lose Weight

Finding one single thing that can help you lose weight is akin to finding a gold nugget while skimming stones on a lake. However, using the power of your mind and psychology tricks, there is one simple method you can use to guarantee your weight loss success, and it is free, easy and simple.

There are no strings attached, just a simple method that is used by countless people who have succeeded in sport, business, arts, fitness and careers.

This is it here, and although it may seem simple by nature, this is the reason for success in so many people who have otherwise failed to “make it”:


Be accountable to somebody other than yourself


It has been known for centuries that humans will do more to avoid pain than to gain pleasure – that is a simple psychological fact, so we can use this fact to help us, rather than hinder us.

When we create accountability, we are not only striving to achieve our goal for ourselves, but also to avoid the pain of letting the other person(s) down, and the pain of making ourselves looking like a lazy fool.

Talking is easy, but doing is the hard part. This is why this method automatically guarantees you a better chance at succeeding, provided you follow a couple of simple rules:

  1. Always make it a person who is NOT a family member or your spouse. These people tend to go easy on you, plus they think they know you. This can be detrimental so success because they think they know what you can and can’t do, so they aren’t surprised when you fail.
  2. The other person must also have a goal they are striving to achieve, and you must hold that person accountable to their success as well.
  3. The point of being accountable is not to belittle or ridicule the person if they fail to achieve it, simply to ask why they didn’t, and then together reformulate the plan for success, then meet up again to see if has been met that time.
  4. Meeting up once per week is the best time frame. Monthly it gets too hard to focus on details, and daily fluctuations can be too wild.
  5. These meetings do not have to be long, in fact 15 minutes a week is plenty enough time to discuss your meeting of objectives, or failure.

Finding such a person is not difficult, every single person in this life wants to be better, you just have to find someone who is willing to become better be achieving a goal.

Here are some places you may find such a person:

  • At a gym
  • Dance, martial arts or other fitness classes
  • Online chatrooms/forums (it is advisable to have somebody you can “see” every week, as opposed to an internet friend – although an online buddy is better than no buddy
  • Universities and colleges
  • Goal setting groups
  • You ambitious friends or work colleagues

There are plenty of people who are looking for the same thing as you – accountability – you just have to make the first move to get out there and find such a person.


Johnny Palmer teaches how to lose body fat fast, how to get six pack abs, runs a fat loss & muscle building website, and how to do it all naturally, with no aid from supplements, drugs or anything boring on his website –



3 Tips for a Successful Weight Loss Programme

Man Trying to Lose Weight

Man Trying to Lose Weight

You need to understand that in order to turn your life in the right direction that there are 3 things you need to know that can aid you in tackling your obesity.  Each and every day can be a struggle when dealing with the unknown.

Quick weight loss plans of course are a favorite for our society to embark upon; however, there are 3 main things any good program must recognize.

They are the following:

1. Choose the right weight loss program.

The program which you choose must teach proper nutrition.  Obtaining a good nutritional plan and maintaining that nutritional plan is crucial to any weight loss programme.  If the program you choose disregards a well balanced diet, that means they are only focusing on losing weight quickly.  This is a good short term fix to your obesity problem but you will however statistically speaking, gain the weight back without the knowledge of keeping the weight off as well as not understanding how a good nutritional diet aids with a long term weight loss plan.

2. Say No to Binge Eating and Comfort Eating

Believe it or not, your mind affects your eating habits.  If you have the mindset that every time you are upset you have to eat, this can cause obesity. Binge eating when you are upset or emotionally distressed, is known to upset your diet.

You have to master the idea that you do not have to eat every time you get upset.

If you absolutely have to eat something, make it something healthy as compared to something which is highly concentrated in sugar or chocolate.  You can train your mind in changing your eating habits.  You need to find out why you are becoming upset and deal with the issue(s).

3. Be Active:-

A healthier lifestyle can be very beneficial to someone fighting obesity.  Choose to start exercising, change your routines which you perform on a daily basis, motivate yourself.  You do not have to go out and run ten miles a day but do keep in mind that cardiovascular exercises are not only good for your heart but is also a great way to burn calories, which is important in weight loss or keeping the weight off.  Many small things we perform on a daily basis actually burn calories.

* Take the Stairs:- Walking up and down stairs as compared to using the elevator is a great exercise.

* Ride your Bike:- If you do not live far from your work place, ride your bike to work instead of driving your car.  You will not only benefit physically from small changes such as this but you will begin to feel better about yourself overall.

Any program you choose to aid you in the fight against obesity must contain these three very important rules.  These points are the foundation for any good weight loss program.  Keep in mind if you choose a program which will guide you through the weigh loss regime, therefore, choosing the right one for you will save you money as compared to going through many expensive weight loss programs which never worked for you in the first place.

Last of all:- Believe in yourself and think positive!

You Can Do It!

Difference between Lasek Eye Surgery and Lasik

eye examination

eye examination

Both Lasik and Lasek are eye surgeries done using laser. Both have the same risks, and both also have a good success rate. Patients with eye disorders and problems have to consult an experienced and reliable surgeon who will study the eye composition and decide whether to perform a Lasik eye operation or a Lasek one. The main consideration while choosing the mode of operation is the thickness of the cornea. There are a few differences between the two.
There are subtle differences between a Lasik eye surgery and a Lasek eye surgery.

While Lasik is Laser Assisted In-situ Keratomileusis meaning that the procedure is done in the place itself, Lasek is Laser Assisted Sub Epithelial Keratomileusis meaning that it is done below the epithelium. Both Lasik and Lasek are procedures used to correct certain problems of the eye like myopia (short sight), long sight and astigmatism. There is not much difference in the time needed for the operation as both can be done within a minute for each eye, though the whole procedure may last for fifteen minutes. Both are outpatient procedures and need no hospitalization.

In the Lasik procedure a microkeratome knife is used and the epithelium and stroma are cut to 100-180 microns. Alcohol in diluted form is used to separate and lift the epithelium and a flap is created. In Lasek procedure the epithelium is cut only at a thickness of 50 microns while the stroma is left uncut. A finer blade is used in this method as compared to the Lasik method and the corneal tissue under the epithelial flap is treated. Here too alcohol is used to raise the epithelium. However the biggest difference between the two is in the difference in the thickness of the flap and the stroma tissue which is treated in Lasik while Lasek only treats the epithelial tissue of the eye.

There is a some difference in the recovery period The Lasek patient can become normal within a day or two, drive within three days and has the required vision in a couple of months. The healing here is faster. In a Lasik surgery patient, the flap heals within a day but he can drive only after about a week and the recovery is slightly longer than if he had a Lasek operation.

Lasik procedure is suitable for people who have more corneal tissue. There is no pain and less discomfort than in the Lasek procedure. They have an immediately clear vision and there may not be any corneal haze. In Lasek patients’ people generally have less corneal tissue but it is preserved more. There are no complications of stromal flap and there is less risk of dry eyes as compared with the Lasek patient.

There are some risks in both these surgeries. The flap may get dislodged with trauma or there may be scars which may need post operative treatment in about 5 percent of patients. The remaining ninety five may have no complaints and can lead normal lives as soon as possible. The happy part is that there have been no cases reported of any patient losing his eyesight after laser treatment.

As always, there are eye exercises or Pencil Pushups which can be performed prior to the operation. Due to recent advances in laser technology, laser eye surgery is generally a safe procedure. That said, there are some side-effects and  Complications of laser eye surgery which are rare, but you need to be aware of them.

Posted in Eye

Blade Less (Laser) Eye Surgery- Intralase Eye Surgery

Eye Examination

Eye Examination

The Intralase eye surgery is a very advanced form of laser eye surgery which may not have reached several countries and some of the surgeons till now.

Intralase surgery is also called the “Blade-less Eye Surgery” or the “All Laser Eye Surgery” as only lasers and no blades are used in this procedure.

Normally the microkeratone, which is a hand held blade, is used to make the cutting for the flap. In intralase surgery it is a laser which does this job. Naturally the laser does a better job at cutting rather than a manual one and there are thus fewer chances of tearing or uneven edges of the cornea and the underlying tissues.

Intralase eye surgery is performed with the help of a computer which guides the laser beam. This makes very tiny bubbles on the cornea which help in cutting the flap. The underlying tissues are corrected and the flap put back in place. This is done in a matter of minutes and the patient may not even be aware that the surgery is completed so fast. It needs an expert surgeon to do it correctly and a properly selected patient. The patient should be over 18 years of age. He should be in reasonable good health and should not be using the specs or contacts, for at least a week to ten days prior to the operation, which he earlier had been using to cover his astigmatism, or short or long sight.

The sophisticated intralase method of eye surgery is safe. The patient heals faster as the cut is clean and precise. He will recover faster than in traditional eye surgery. Majority of those who have undergone this surgery have said that they have achieved a perfect twenty-twenty vision after the intralase eye surgery. As the cut is clean, it is less prone to infections or inflammations.

In this procedure even people who have thin corneas can be operated. Earlier with the other laser procedures, the thinness of the cornea used to be a big hurdle for the operation. But in intralse the thickness of the cornea does not matter and even a thin one can be operated.

Most patients are comfortable after the intralase surgery. They notice a marked improvement in their vision from the very next day. Most of them can go to their workplaces and resume their normal activities within a day after intralase surgery. However ladies should not use eye make up for at least three days after the surgery. All patients should avoid swimming or rubbing their eyes for at least a couple of weeks after the surgery. Some may complain about being sensitive to bright light or may report seeing halos around lights especially at night. Bit this will disappear soon. Some may have dry eyes which can be rectified using eye drops.

The patients have to undergo regular checkups after the operation to ensure that the healing is fine and that their eyes are normal and healthy. They can thus say goodbye to their specs and their contact lens.

As always, there are eye exercises or Pencil Pushups which can be performed prior to the operation. Due to recent advances in laser technology, laser eye surgery is generally a safe procedure. That said, there are some side-effects and  Complications of laser eye surgery which are rare, but you need to be aware of them.

Posted in Eye

Eye Exercises to Improve Vision- Pencil Pushups



Eye exercises are generally done to avoid prescription glasses or laser eye surgery. Many of us are naturally wary of jumping onto the operating table and resort to eye surgery. Especially when we believe that there are alternatives to laser eye surgery.


Some of our readers have pointed out that these exercises can be done to avoid wearing contact lenses and glasses, please let us know whether you found these exercises helpful.

Below is a list of Simple Eye Exercises

* The simplest eye exercise is to look at objects in the distance for long periods of time. This can be done while you are sitting in a garden or walking.

* You can alternate between looking at things in the distance and things nearby so that the eye keeps focusing on objects near and far. All this does is to give your muscles a work out and strengthen them.

The way to do this exercise is to sit down and focus on a distant object for 1 minute and then focus on a near by object.

Pencil Push Ups :- Some prefer to do with a pencil held in the hand. Try to concentrate on the tip of the pencil holding it near to your nose and slowly, but gradually stretch your arm to full length, always trying to focus on the tip.

Repeat 10 times every day.

* Keeping the eyeballs moving is the easiest method of correcting vision. Sit down and move your eyes clock wise and then counter clock wise.

Repeat 10 times every day.

Orthoptics is a practice of using the eyes to improve muscular imbalances in the eyes. Credit for these techniques goes to Mary Maddox, an English lady, daughter of an ophthalmologist. She devised orthoptics in the first half of the twentieth century.

Orthoptics is a combination of two Greek words meaning straight vision. Eye exercises are performed which improve the eyesight and correct problems. They do not cost any money and can be done anywhere. These exercises have been found satisfactory by medical practitioners.

Doing eye exercises will not harm you in any way, but the possibility that your refractive error will be corrected by eye exercises is slim.

Bottom Line:- There is one rational method of eye training and eye exercises—orthoptics—carried out under competent optometric and medical supervision to correct coordination or binocular vision problems such as “crossed eyes” and “lazy” eyes. If the muscles that control eye movements are out of balance, the function of one eye may be suppressed to avoid double vision. Covering the good eye can often stimulate the amblyopic eye to work again to provide binocular vision for the patient. Orthoptics, surgery, or a combination of the two often can improve problems in pointing and focusing the eyes due to poor eye-muscle control.

Remember: Whatever said and done, no type of eye exercise can improve a refractive error or cure any ailment within the eyeball or in any remote part of the body.





Posted in Eye

Alternatives to Laser Eye Surgery

Laser Eye Care

Laser Eye Care

Laser eye surgery is an operation to correct the vision problems using laser technology. All surgical interventions carry a certain amount of risk which may or may not take place. Due to recent advances in laser technology, laser eye surgery is generally a safe procedure. That said, there are some side-effects and  Complications of laser eye surgery which are rare, but you need to be aware of them. Some of us have a great fear of surgery and would like to try out alternatives to surgery in the first instance.

If your vision is failing or causing problems and you doctor recommends Laser eye surgery, then you should give it a very good thought. If you have made up your mind, NOT to have surgery, then you may want alternatives to laser eye surgery.

Alternatives to Laser Eye Surgery

* Opt for normal surgery which has been going on for ages and therefore has predictable results. This will also, correct vision problems.

* Try eye exercises or Pencil Pushups

* Continue to use corrective contact lens or spectacles which are worn to correct the vision without surgery.

* Opt for lensectomy where lens are implanted after removing the natural lens.

* Opt for artificial lens, which can be inserted without removing the original lens.

The latter 2 options seem to be a bit drastic and the best bet is to listen to your doctor’s advice.

* Intracorneal rings are available which can be placed inside the cornea for better and corrected vision. These rings make the cornea slightly flat so that the near sightedness is improved. They can be removed and the myopia will return.

* Eye Exercises: – These are simple, inexpensive, do not need a doctor’s guidance and have been there from the beginning of time. These eye exercises are done to improve the eyesight. They can be learnt and done anywhere and at any time and have no side effects.

Our ancestors lived without resorting to specs, lens or operations. They had good vision and very little problems except when they grew old and their eyesight naturally diminished. It could be that our lifestyle is to be blamed for our present problems. We do not use our eyes as nature intended. We read, watch television, and sit before a computer for hours and our vision suffers. Our eyes do not get enough exercise. If eyes are used as nature intended then there would be less problems and no need of laser eye surgeries or operations of any kind.

Bottom line:- Easy to say and difficult to practice. Listen to what your ophthalmologist says and discuss your fears.

Posted in Eye

Laser – Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

Laser Rays

Laser Rays

The expanded form of the term LASER is Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

Light emitted through electromagnetic radiation is focused on a particular object to find out, investigate or cure it. The light is manipulated by lens to focus on the subjects to be investigated. Light here does not mean only the light that we see with our naked eyes, but even infra red rays and ultraviolet rays which we cannot see.

History of Laser

Though Albert Einstein, the famous physicist, first laid the foundations for LASER in 1917, LASER as a common tool used for diagnostic and curative measures was invented much later. May 16, 1960 was the important day when Theodore Maiman demonstrated how laser could be used for storing data in devices like the Compact Disc (CD) and DVD. This was shown at a Research Laboratory. People called it ‘a solution looking for a problem’ in the 60s but now lasers are used everywhere, in thousands of applications.

Applications of LASER

Science, medicine, industry, information technology, law enforcement, entertainment, military, consumer electronics and others use laser beams extensively. So much so that one wonders how people survived without the use of laser all these years. Lasers have become very common now. We have all seen extra terrestrial beings using laser beams in science fiction movies and on screen films. It looks like magic, the way the sci-fi heroes shoot using laser beams. Perhaps the first important use of laser in the lives of common people was in the supermarket barcode scanner where a laser beam is used for scanning the price of the products. This started around 1974. Laserdisc players, compact disc and laser printers became common around 1982.

Laser today is used in several useful medical procedures. We now see laser applications being used in bloodless surgeries like removal of kidney stones, or in dentistry, laser eye surgery and the like. Laser treatment, though expensive, is used for curing and solving many medical problems. Cataracts in the eyes are removed safely using laser treatment and the patient gets cured very fast, without any side effects. In industry lasers are used in cutting, welding and in heat treatments.

The latest are laser light shows which are common in Singapore in their shows for public entertainment, on opening days of sports festivals and the like. They are very attractive and mind-boggling. Laser is used in research as in spectroscopy. Thermometers and bubblegrams also use laser technology. The defense section uses lasers in guiding ammunitions, marking targets and can be used to blind enemy troops. Actual laser weapons are being invented and are entering the market. The laser beams hit the target with pulses of light which rapidly evaporate and expand, causing shock waves on the target which can damage it.

Beauty treatments too use laser in various forms. Unwanted hair removal using laser, acne removal, cellulite reduction all use laser. By removing hair through laser, there is less chance of hair growing all over again, but beware of laser hair removal side-effects and complications. People use laser treatment in the reduction of fats as well. There are several new methods of using laser technology and everywhere round the world people are experimenting and inventing them.

Laser Hair Removal- Complications and Side Effects

Laser Hair Removal

Laser Hair Removal

Lasers for hair removal have been used effectively on people ever since it was approved for use for this purpose in the year 1997 by the FDA. Ever since, many improvements have been made to the laser light sources to make it more effective for use as well as helpful in eliminating the occurrence of side effects and complications with laser hair removal.

But, despite this there is still the possibility of the occurrence of side effects and complications.

Another factor that matters is the ability of the professional providing the treatment. Let us now see the adverse effects and possible complications that can occur from the use of lasers for hair removal. I recommend going to a doctor & not to your local hair dresser.

Although the occurrence of side effects and complications have greatly reduced due to the improvement of laser light sources for hair removal as well as due to the increased abilities of professionals providing the treatment, some of the following side effects and complications can still occur, some temporary and some permanent.

Temporary Adverse Effects of Laser Hair Removal

When undertaking laser therapy for hair removal or reduction, some temporary adverse effects might occur. These side effects are however temporary and will disappear after some time after the therapy but time taken might differ from person to person.

* Blisters following treatment are one of the most common of side effects that are seen after the procedure. However, the use of cooling devices or other cooling agents have greatly reduced the occurrence of these side effects. Also, these blisters are quite painful.

* Pain is another common side effect and can occur when the procedure is being done and afterwards too. However, the use of topical anesthetics is helpful in reducing the pain from the procedure.

* Swelling and redness is also commonly seen temporary side effect. These side effects are also minimal when topical creams are applied following the procedure. Also, skin changes like Hyperpigmentation (skin darkening) is also seen in some persons treated with lasers for hair removal.

Permanent Adverse Effects of Laser Hair Removal

Hypopigmentation (skin lightening) is a problem that is seen in dark skinned persons and this side effect is often permanent. Scar formation is another side effect that is seen in some patients and is often seen when the treatment is performed by an inexperienced person. When treatment is done by an inexperienced professional, the possibility of burn is also higher.

How to Minimize these Laser Side Effects

In order to minimize the occurrence of side effects, it is first and foremost essential to get the therapy done with a qualified and experienced professional trained in laser. Discuss with the treating professional all the expected side effects and also discuss what steps are being followed to minimize the occurrence of side effects. Also, get to understand what instructions you need to follow prior to the procedure and also during and after the procedure so that these side effects will be minimal or absent.

The treating professional will on their side need to use the right equipment to help minimize the occurrence of side effects. Based on the skin tone and the type of hair present, the appropriate laser source with the right wavelength will be selected to carry out the procedure. The effectiveness of the device is weighed against the possibility of side effects to determine the correct device and the duration of treatment for every session.

Many cooling mechanisms are used along with these laser devices to prevent damage to the skin and also help in minimizing the occurrence of side effects. Check with the treating professional what measures are employed in their practice. Some examples of cooling mechanism are laser devices fitted with cooling mechanisms, use of cryogen sprays, use of ice pack or cold compress, placing a skin soothing gel, etc.

Also, an experienced professional will use the optimum amount of these light sources to get the best desired effects. Too little or too much use can also lead to problems of unsatisfactory treatment or side effects from over treatment respectively. Some professionals also use grids for determine which areas need to be treated so that it does not cause any damage from over treatment.

Care Taken by the Person after Laser Hair Removal

Many instructions will be provided that needs to be followed right from before the procedure and some will be necessary to be followed while the procedure is being undertaken and some after it.

The person undergoing the procedure should inform the treating professional about correct medical history, medications if any, presence of any illness or allergies as some of these might have an influence on the outcome and occurrence of side effects. The procedure should be avoided during pregnancy and if you are pregnant, it is a must that you should let the treating person know about it.

The person undergoing the procedure should realize that multiple treatment sessions will be necessary to get the desired results and should turn up for the procedure sessions as and when instructed to get the best results and to minimize the occurrence of side effects. Prior to performing the procedure, the person will be advised to avoid getting into the sun and to avoid tanning treatments. Also, no other hair removal methods should be employed within a day or two before the treatment is scheduled.

During the procedure, the patient and all the other personnel in the treatment room will be asked to wear protective glasses and these should not be removed at any time to avoid causing damage to the eyes. Pain during the procedure will be minimized by the use of creams or certain numbing sprays.

Ice packs or cold compresses might be placed in order to minimize the occurrence of side effects like pain, redness and swelling. After the procedure, the patient might be instructed to continue the use of ice pack if appropriate and also might be advised to apply some soothing creams at the site to help in the healing of the skin.

If proper care is taken by the treating professional and the person undergoing treatment, then it is definitely possible to minimize the occurrence of side effects. Many people undergoing the procedure will see no side effects or some temporary side effects that usually disappear on their own. Also, the fear of side effects should not drive you away from undertaking the procedure as the advancement of laser light sources used for treatment and experience of the treating professionals have helped negate the occurrence of side effects to a large extent.

Weight Loss During Marathon Increases the Chances of Winning

South African Reserachers have found that if a marathon runner loses 3% of body weight during the race, the chances of winning increases.

The researchers gathered data on 643 competitors, 560 male and 83 female, who completed the Mont Saint Michel Marathon race in France in 2009. They ran 42 kilometers (26.0975 miles).

The study took place during the 2009 Mont Saint-Michel Marathon (France). 643 marathon finishers (560 males and 83 females) were studied. The change in body weight during the race was calculated from measurements of each runner’s body weight immediately before and after the race.

They found that body weight loss during the marathon was inversely related to race finishing time in 643 marathon runners and was >3% in runners completing the race in less than 3 h.

The researchers found that those with the best finishing times were also the individuals who had lost the most weight.

Runners who finished in four hours lost an average of under 2% of their body weight, compared to 2.5% among those who finished within three to four hours.

Those who finished their run within three hours lost at least 3% of their body weight.

Mesothelioma- Diagnosis & Treatment

It is often difficult to diagnose mesothelioma clinically as the signs & symptoms of mesothelioma mentioned, are common to many other diseases. Therefore doctors perform a physical examination and a battery of tests like blood tests, chest x ray, CT scan and Biopsy of the affected area etc. These are dependant on the individual being treated and is individually tailored to that individual depending on the symptoms.

Treatment Options for Mesothelioma

1. Surgery

2. Radiation Therapy

3. Chemotherapy